文章出处:kaiyun 人气:发表时间:2023-11-17 00:27
本文摘要:1. Biotech1.生物科技Since the early 2000s, the cost of sequencing a human genome — determining the precise order of nucleotides within DNA molecules that defines who we are — has dropped sharply. A genome that cost $100m to sequence in 2001 ca


1. Biotech1.生物科技Since the early 2000s, the cost of sequencing a human genome — determining the precise order of nucleotides within DNA molecules that defines who we are — has dropped sharply. A genome that cost $100m to sequence in 2001 can today be sequenced for roughly $1,000.自本世纪初以来,人类基因测序(确认DNA分子内部核苷酸的清楚排序,这一排序要求了我们是谁)的价格已大幅度暴跌。2001年基因测序的价格高达1亿美元,如今仅有为1000美元左右。This plummeting cost, along with the shortened timescales for sequencing DNA, has led to a revolution in biotechnology: gene hacking, or the ability to turn genes on and off, and to manipulate biology to our advantage.价格暴跌再行再加DNA测序所须要时间延长,带给了生物技术领域的革命:基因黑客技术,需要打开和重开基因、操控生物学让其为我们所用。The most radical branch of this new technology is “gene editing” — a process by which our DNA code can be cut and pasted using molecular “scissors” for a variety of applications, including curing diseases such as cancers and HIV. Until recently, swapping the code was an arduous process. A new DNA cut-and-paste tool known as Crispr has made the process unexpectedly simple.这种新技术的最保守分支是“基因编辑”:利用分子“剪刀”剪切和粘贴我们的DNA编码的过程,其用途很多,还包括医治癌症和艾滋病等疾病。


Crispr has been used to create disease-resistant strains of wheat and rice, alter yeast to make biofuels and reverse blindness in animals. Ultimately, it could be used to edit defects out of human embryos.Crispr用来建构抗病的小麦和大米品种、转变酵母菌以生产生物燃料并化疗动物失聪。最后,它也许可用作避免人类胚胎中的缺失。

2. Artificial intelligence2.人工智能Artificial intelligence is not science fiction: it is already embedded in products we use every day. Apple’s Siri assistant, Amazon’s book recommendations, Facebook’s news feed and Spotify’s music discovery playlist are all examples of services driven by machine learning algorithms.人工智能并非科幻小说:它早已映射到我们每天用于的产品中。苹果(Apple)的Siri助理、亚马逊(Amazon)的图书引荐、Facebook的新闻启动时以及Spotify的音乐找到列表都是由机器学习算法驱动的服务的例子。This decades-old science is enjoying a renaissance today because of the deluge of data created by smartphones and sensors, and the supercomputing power that is available to crunch that data. According to technology research firm Tractica, the AI market will grow from $643.7m in 2016 to $36.8bn by 2025.这门享有几十年历史的科学如今于是以经历兴起,因为智能手机和传感器建构了大量数据,并且如今我们有了需要处置这些数据的超级运算能力。

根据科技研究机构Tractica的数据,人工智能市场的规模将从2016年的6.437亿美元不断扩大到2025年的368亿美元。Techniques such as deep learning and neural networks supposedly mimic the human brain: they spot broad patterns in enormous data sets in order to label images, recognise voices and make decisions.据传,深度自学和神经网络等技术不会仿效人脑:它们不会辨识大量数据集中于各种大的模式,以构建对图片的归类、辨识声音和作出要求。The next step is artificial general intelligence: an algorithm that will not have to be taught a specific skill such as a game of chess or a new language, but will acquire it through trial and error, just as a child does. Companies such as London-based DeepMind, owned by Google, and others are working to make this a reality.下一步是通用型人工智能:这种算法不必须被教授明确技能(例如对局或一门新的语言),而是不会通过试错法来习得技能,就像儿童所做到的那样。

总部坐落于伦敦的DeepMind(由谷歌(Google)所有)等公司以及其他公司于是以致力于让这变成现实。3. Renewable energy3.可再生能源World leaders last year ratified the Paris Agreement on climate change.世界各国领导人去年批准后了《巴黎气候协议》(Paris Agreement)。This aims to keep the global average temperature from rising more than 2C above pre-industrial levels and to attempt to keep the increase under 1.5C. Keeping this promise will require more renewable energy research over the next decade.该协议目的制止全球平均气温较工业时代以前的水平增高2摄氏度以上,并企图将加剧幅度掌控在1.5摄氏度以下。

还清这一允诺将必须在未来10年增大可再生能源研究。In energy, researchers are trying to build a nuclear fusion reactor that would tap the same process that causes the sun to give off light and heat to create a source of clean energy. An intergovernmental partnership is building a $19bn fusion reactor, ITER, in France. Other innovations include artificial photosynthesis to make hydrocarbons in laboratories to power cars, and high-altitude wind power that involves kites and hot-air balloons acting as aerial wind turbines.在能源领域,研究人员正试图修建一个核聚变反应堆,利用与太阳闪烁痉挛原理完全相同的过程,建构出有一个清洁能源来源。

一项政府间合作计划正在法国修建一个190亿美元的核聚变反应堆ITER。其他创意计划还包括:人工光合作用,在实验室中生产碳氢化合物为汽车获取动力;高海拔风电厂,把风筝和热气球作为空中风力涡轮。Iceland is investing in geothermal technology, drilling for heat energy underground. Thirty years ago it started by using geothermal resources to heat towns and cities. Now, the entire country’s electricity and heating systems are powered almost fully by renewable energy, including geothermal and hydropower.冰岛正在投资发展地热技术,通过钻井铁矿地下热能。30年前,该国开始利用地热资源为城镇暖气。

如今,整个国家的电力和供暖系统完全全部依赖可再生能源,还包括地热和水电。4. Connectivity4.网络终端技术WiFi — a household staple that modern children take for granted — turned 25 last September. As more objects connect to the “internet of things” — an estimated 50bn of them by 2020, according to estimates from technology company Cisco — the future of WiFi lies in reducing the power it drains from internet-enabled devices.WiFi是现代儿童眼中理所当然的家庭标配,去年9月,这项技术童年了25岁生日。

随着更加多设备与“物联网”连接(根据科技公司思科(Cisco)的估算,到2020年,联入物联网的设备将超过500亿台),WiFi的未来各不相同减少其在联网设备上消耗的电量。One innovation, invented by students at the University of Washington in Seattle, is known as “passive WiFi” which its inventors say consumes 10,000 times less power. It is currently slower than regular home broadband, but would work well for applications such as smart thermostats or lightbulbs. The WiFi community is also looking to develop higher-frequency bands that would be used over a limited range, such as in a house or car.坐落于西雅图的华盛顿大学(University of Washington)的学生发明者了一种创意技术,取名为“被动WiFi”。发明人称之为,耗电量仅有为以前的万分之一。

目前速率高于一般的家庭宽带,但应用于恒温器或灯泡等设备效果很好。WiFi界还计划研发更高的频段,用作覆盖面积受限的范围,例如家中或车里。Ultimately, WiFi itself could be replaced by a new superfast alternative called Li-Fi, which uses light to beam information through the air, instead of radio waves. Lightbulbs would act as routers for this technology. A pilot study earlier this year found that a Li-Fi prototype could send data 100 times faster than WiFi, allowing dozens of movies to be downloaded in minutes.最后,WiFi可能会被另一种新的超高速相连技术Li-Fi代替,这种技术利用光通过空气(而非无线电波)传输信息。灯泡将作为这项技术的路由器。

今年早些时候的一项试验研究找到,Li-Fi样机的数据传输速度是WiFi的100倍,几十部电影可以在几分钟之内iTunes完。5. Smart appliances5.智能家电Almost two-thirds of the human population is connected to the internet via smartphones, but these devices are not the only portal to the web. In 2016 there were 6.4bn connected things — excluding PCs, phones and tablets — in use worldwide, up 30 per cent from the previous year, according to technology analyst Gartner. The internet of things, as it is known, is this universe of objects — everything from cars to printers, lightbulbs to thermostats — that are no longer “dumb”, static things: they can learn your habits and be controlled remotely using an app.全球将近三分之二的人口通过智能手机相连互联网,但智能手机并非唯一的互联网终端门户。技术分析机构低德纳(Gartner)的数据表明,2016年,全球有64亿个用于中的联网设备(不还包括个人电脑、手机和笔记本电脑),较上一年高达30%。

物联网正是这些联网设备的子集,从汽车到打印机、灯泡到恒温器,它们仍然是“愚蠢”、惯性的物体:它们可以自学你的习惯并通过应用于远程控制。The stereotypical smart appliance is the self-stocking refrigerator that replenishes your milk automatically. This innovation will replace a lot more than the sniff test. Cars are now computers, running more lines of code than the Apollo 11 spaceship on its way to the moon. As these computers become more intelligent, cars will drive themselves, potentially reducing traffic-related fatalities. Smart sensors can also transform industry, for instance by monitoring goods during transport, helping utility companies to measure energy usage and logistics companies to track vehicles over long distances.典型的智能家电是可以自动备货的冰箱,需要自动补足牛奶。

这种创意带给的便利远不止是仍然必须靠嗅觉来判断食品否变质。汽车现在变为了电脑,运营的代码行数比阿波罗11号(Apollo 11)宇宙飞船飞抵月球时还要多。随着这些电脑显得更加智能,汽车将构建自动驾驶,可能会增加交通事故造成的丧生。






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